Cooling Of The Worts
As soon as the wort is out of the copper the next thing is to get the
heat out as soon as possible, and to get it in a state for
fermentation. Most private brewers, and many victuallers, separate
their worts into tubs, bowls, pans, &c. for cooling; I have seen wort
in no less than twelve or sixteen different utensils; worts being of a
sticky quality, it must be acknowleged that a loss is sustained by
having the wort in
so many utensils, and also very inconvenient to pour
the wort from the tubs and pans into the working tun; for in each of
the before mentioned utensils will be a sediment, which too frequently
follows the wort into the working tun.
Now to prevent the use of all these small utensils, a brew-house,
though ever so small, will admit of two coolers being erected; for two
coolers will take up nearly the same room in the brew-house as if only
one were to be erected; for one cooler should be nearly underneath the
other, so that the second cooler may receive the wort from the first.
Care must be taken in fixing the coolers, so as to admit the working
tun underneath the coolers, to receive the wort: but this need not be
consulted where there is a conveniency to convey the worts and work
them in the cellar.
Note. A victualler is compelled by law not to alter the
position of his coolers without giving notice to the excise
officer;--now private families have the advantage,--they may have
their coolers fixed in the brew-house, or to lay on trestles, and
move them to any part, as occasion may require.
The size of the coolers must so correspond with the quantity of malt
brewed, that in warm weather the worts do not exceed two inches in
depth in the coolers; for in summer brewing the heat cannot too soon
escape from the worts; and this is the evil--not having a conveniency
to separate the worts in a thin state, the brewer has not been able to
get the heat out,--he has let the wort down into the working tun in a
warm state, which has often brought on the fox, in a short time became
sour, and rendered unfit for drinking.
The reader will observe that brewing in warm weather ought to be
avoided as much as possible; for the coolers or tubs in warm weather
being in a very dry state, and the worts being a long time cooling,
that, at least, one gallon in forty will exhaust itself.
I shall point out one more improvement for cooling the worts more
expeditiously: In many brew-houses there is no conveniency, when the
worts come out of the copper, for the steam to escape out of the
brew-house, but will continue for a time in a thick cloudy state, to
the great detriment of the worts:--to remedy this, I would recommend
flap shutters to be erected in as many parts of the brew-house as
convenient, and the building will admit; the flap shutters will permit
the steam to escape and very rapidly cool the worts. These shutters are
as convenient in the winter, or when the weather is moderately cool,
for they are so contrived that you may set them to what centre you
From these improvements the brewing will be more expeditiously
performed, as the worts will, of course, from this conveniency, much
sooner make way for the small beer, and totally prevent its being left
in the copper all night, which is too often practised, to the injury of
those who drink it, as it will not be fine, but remain in a thick wey
colour, which is owing to its being in the copper too long, and not
being kept in a boiling state; for if a copper has been in use twenty
years it will at times shew symtoms of the verdigrease, which is a
sufficient voucher that the wort cannot be too short a time in the
copper, except when boiling.
Coolers will last many years without repairing; when, on the contrary,
cooling tubs, &c. are frequently out of repair, and are as lumber,
being of little or no use, except when used in brewing.
From the before mentioned improvements you will always finish your
brewing before a late hour at night, which will enable you to pay the
more attention to the worts in the tuns, &c.
Care should be taken to keep the brewing utensils as clean and as sweet
as those used in a dairy; for without cleanliness it is impossible to
have your beer in a good and wholesome state.
The copper should be cleaned after each brewing, as it will keep it
bright; when it is used but seldom, and in wet or damp weather, the
verdigrease will appear, but care should be taken to examine and clean
it, previous to the warier's being put in for brewing.
It often happens, where the mash tun is not used for a working tun, the
grains are left in the mash tun till the next morning, they will then
be in a sour state; therefore the tun should be scalded before the next
brewing. If in very warm weather, some quick lime, that is, lime not
slacked, will be necessary, by adding some water to dissolve it to the
same consistence as used for a white-wash; then with a mop or brush wet
the tun with the lime like unto white-washing; after the lime has been
on about a day it may be washed off.
Much care should be taken to keep the coolers and working tuns in a
clean state, by frequently scalding; it will be necessary in warm
weather to lime the coolers and working tuns;--this is an excellent
remedy where the coolers and tuns are tinged with the fox, as also a
preventative against that fulsome complaint. Experience will inform you
that the use of lime is excellent in cleaning the utensils.
When you soak the coolers, &c. previous to brewing, add some lime to
the water, as it will search and purge the joints of the coolers and
tubs, by cleaning them from disagreeable smells.
Particular attention should be paid to the cooling of the worts, by
having coolers as before mentioned. You may let your worts down into
the tun as quick or as slow as you please and as the season may
require; in very cold weather it should go down into the tun from the
cooler by a good stream, as the worts require to go down into the tun
in a warm state, particularly when there is but a small quantity
brewed. In summer brewing your worts will require to go down into the
tun in a cold state; however it will be much the best for them to be
cold than too warm, therefore you should set the cock or plug to
discharge the worts from the coolers into the tun but slow and
dribbling; for by going down slowly it will prevent a hasty
fermentation, and consequently will have the good effect to prevent
your tun of beer from being foxed; therefore it must be allowed to be
convenient and necessary to have coolers erected, as the worts will go
down into the tun in almost one regular degree of heat.
On the contrary, when worts are cooled in tubs, pans, &c. they are
emptied into the working tun in different degrees of heat, one after
another; perhaps in some of these cooling tubs or pans the worts are
two or three inches in depth; in others, six or seven inches; therefore
the worts will be of different degrees of heat, and by having part of
the worts let down into the tun much warmer than those already down,
and which, perhaps, are in a fermentation, those worts will, of course,
cause a fermentation too hastily,--will frequently cause the tun of
beer to be foxed, and will always be in a heavy state, for the yeast
will not separate itself from the beer; this renders the coolers more
necessary and convenient.