A Few Necessary Improvements

_Pruning Shears._ These are very handy, and with them the work can be

done quicker, and with less labor, as but a slight pressure of the hand

will cut a strong vine. Fig. 22 will show the shape of one for heavy

pruning. They are made by J. T. HENRY, Hampden, Connecticut, and can be

had in almost all hardware stores. The springs should be of brass, as

steel springs are very apt to break. A much lighter and smaller kind,

with but one spring, is very convenient for gathering grapes, as it

will cut the stem easily and smoothly, and not shake the vine, as

cutting with the knife will do. They are also handy to clip out unripe

and rotten berries, and should be generally used instead of knives.

_Pruning Saws._ It will sometimes be necessary to use these, to cut out

old stumps, etc., although, if a vine is well managed, it will seldom

be necessary. Fig. 23 will show a kind which is very convenient for the

purpose, and will also serve for orchard pruning; the blade is narrow,

connected with the handle, and can be turned in any direction.