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- A Comparison Of The Processes Of The Brewer With Those Of The Whiskey Distiller
- How To Order Apples In The Hogsheads
- To Sweeten Hogsheads By Burning
- Distilling Of Buckwheat
- Of The Formation Of Vinous Liquors With Grains In Order To Make Spirits
- Of Hogs
- Distilling Of Potatoes
- How To Build A Malt Kiln In Every Distillery
- Malt
- To Make Rye Malt For Stilling
- The Art Of Making Gin After The Process Of The Holland Distillers
- Profits Of A Common Distillery
- Of Spirituous Liquors Or Spirits
- How To Clarify Whiskey &c
- How To Distil Apples
- Precautions Against Fire
- How To Renew Yeast When Sour

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- To Set A Doubling Still
- Use Of The Kettle
- The Best Method Of Setting Stills
- To Mash Rye In The Common Mode
- To Make The Best Yeast For Daily Use
- On Fining Liquors
- The Following Receipt To Make An Excellent American Wine
- To Mash One Third Rye And Two Thirds Corn
- Of The Season For Brewing
- To Sweeten Hogsheads By Scalding
- To Make Ale Or Any Other Liquor That Is Too New Or Sweet Drink Stale
- Observations On Erecting Distilleries
- To Make Elderberry Wine To Drink Made Warm As A Cordial
- To Know When Yeast Is Good Or Bad
- On Colouring Liquors
- Directions For Making Cider British Mode
- To Recover Sour Ale

Of The Proportions Of The Elements Necessary To Form A Good Vinous Liquor

What are the proportions of the elements necessary to form a good vinous

We owe the important knowledge of those proportions to the celebrated
and unfortunate Lavoisier, who has proved, by the most accurate
experiments, that there must be

100 parts of dry sweet substance, or sugar
400 parts of water
10 parts of ferment, or liquid yeast, which is reduced
--- to 8 7-10ths of dry matter.

510 parts in the whole, which produce 57 parts of dry alcohol; that is,
containing no more water than is necessary to its formation, and
consequently as strong as it can be. Let us dwell for a moment upon the
proportions just pointed out, and especially upon their result, which
exceeds any thing that has ever been obtained. Supposing the weight of
each of those parts to be one pound, we shall have

100 lbs. of dry sweet Substance, or sugar
400 do. of water
10 do. of liquid ferment
510 pounds in the whole.

100lbs. of sugar is the quantity required to make 12-1/2
gallons of sirup, composed of 8lbs. of sugar and 8lbs. of
water per gallon, 12-1/2 galls.
400lbs. of water, at 8lbs. per gall. make 50 "
The produce will be 57lbs. of dry alcohol.

A vessel containing one ounce of water, filled up with this alcohol,
weighs only 16dwts. and 16grs. From this report, it appears that the
specific weight of the alcohol is, to the weight of the water, as 20 to
24; that is, that water weighs 1/5 more than alcohol. If the 57lbs. thus
obtained were only water, it would only represent 7-1/8* gallons; but
being alcohol, it weighs 1/6* less, and consequently gives 7-1/8 gallons
more, the sixth of this quantity, (to wit:) 1-1/6* gallons, which, added
to 7-1/8*, make 8-7/24 gallons.

[TR: Poor quality made it difficult to verify the above numbers and so
noted with an asterisk]

But 1 gallon of dry alcohol, extended in 2 gallons of water, gives 3
gallons of liquor at 19 deg., which is called Holland, or first proof; a
produce surpassing all what has been hitherto known to the distillers. I
will prove it by an example: 1 gallon of molasses yields only 1 gallon
of rum, at 19 deg., to the rum distiller; still, molasses is a true sirup,
composed of 8lbs. of sugar, or sweet matter, more fermentable than
sugar. 12-1/2 gallons of molasses, representing 100lbs. of dry sweet
matter yield consequently 12-1/2 galls. of rum, Holland proof, which is
only half the produce obtained by Lavoisier; an immense difference
capable of exciting the emulation of all distillers, as it proves the
imperfection of the art.

What are the causes of such a dissimilarity of product? We must seek for

1st. In the difference of the strength of the vinous liquor. Lavoisier
employed only 4 parts of water to 1 part of dry sugar. The rum distiller
usually puts 10 gallons of molasses to 90 gallons of water, or the
residue of the preceding distillations.

10 galls. molasses contain
80 lbs. of sweet matter.

90 gallons of water weigh 720lbs.; therefore the proportion is, one part
of sweet matter to 9 parts of water--whilst that indicated by Lavoisier
is only 4 parts of water to 1 part of sugar.[A]

It is obvious how much richer this last must be, and that the
fermentation thus produced has an energy far superior to the other.
Thence results a rapid production of spirit, operated in a short time;
whilst that of the rum distiller languishes more or less, and a slow
fermentation wastes part of the spirit which it produces, even as it is

2dly. Bodies evaporate in proportion to the extent of their surface. One
hogshead of 100 gallons, should contain, according to Lavoisier's
composition, the elements of 50 gallons of spirit, at 19 deg.; whilst that
of the rum distiller contains only 12. Now, as every fermentable liquor
requires open vessels, the hogshead of the rum distiller loses as much
spirit as that of Lavoisier: hence it is plain how far the above
proportion operates to the disadvantage of the fermer.

3dly. Another source of loss arises in the distilling vessels
themselves. Nothing is more imperfect than the stills of a whiskey
distillery. Lavoisier's were so perfect, that he made the analysis and
the synthesis in the most delicate operations [B]. The vessels of the
whiskey distillers, far from being hermetically closed, allow the spirit
to evaporate through every joint. And this is not all: corroded by the
acetous acid, they are full of small holes, particularly in the cap,
where all the vapors collect themselves, as in a reservoir. It is easy
to conceive with what rapidity they escape, which occasions a
considerable waste of liquor. In proof of the truth of this observation,
we may refer to the smell of whiskey, so strongly perceivable on the
roads leading to a distillery, and preceeding from no other cause than
that liquor wasting out of bad vessels, to the great loss of the

4thly. A fourth cause of loss arises from the worm of the still. However
careful in keeping the surrounding water cool, there is always one
portion of vapor not condensed. This is made more sensible in the
winter, when the cold of the atmosphere makes every vapor visible; upon
examination, it will be seen that the running stream of liquor is
surrounded with it. In my description of my apparatus, I give the means
of obviating that evil.

To these several causes, may we not add another? May not the production
of spirit be in a ratio to the richness of the fermenting liquor? It is
certain, that in every spirituous fermentation there is a portion of the
sweet matter which remains undecomposed and in its original state.
Lavoisier found that it was 4.940; that is, nearly 5 parts in 100. It
may possibly be the same in a weaker liquor; which would increase the
loss, in the inverse ratio of the density of the liquor. Such are the
causes to which I attribute the great superiority of Lavoisier's
products; and from those observations I thought I could establish the
fabrication of whiskey upon new principles.

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